BIOING1202 Molecular biology and genetics


Learning outcomes

Upon passing this course, the graduate will have achieved the following learning outcomes:


The student

  • has knowledge of the content, meaning and expression of genetic information from DNA to protein
  • has knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms controlling DNA replication, transcription and translation in humans and organisms (including viruses) relevant for human health
  • has knowledge about all forms of mutation of nucleic acids, how they arise, their effects on gene expression and how they are repaired
  • has knowledge of the principles of genetic inheritance, pedigree analysis and how mutant alleles are inherited and how they can affect phenotypes including causing disease
  • has knowledge about different forms of polymorphisms in DNA and how they can be developed and exploited as diagnostic genetic markers
  • has knowledge of fundamental themes within functional genomics and proteomics
  • has broad knowledge about the principles underlying central laboratory methods employed in molecular biology, e.g. extraction of nucleic acids, PCR, cloning, melting point analysis, electrophoresis and DNA sequencing
  • has knowledge about central molecular biological laboratory methods are employed in diagnostics and in the development of treatment therapies
  • has knowledge about different types of genetic testing, gene therapy and cloning
  • is familiar with laws and regulations that govern genetic testing and genetic counselling


The student

  • can apply central methods in molecular biology such as nucleic acid extraction, quantitation, restriction, PCR-amplification (end point, semiquantitative and quantitative), dissociation, hybridisation sequencing and cloning
  • master interpretation of human pedigrees displaying the inheritance pattern of traits, syndromes and disease states 

General competence

The student

  • can plan and carry out experiments involving genetic material and chemicals while observing all laboratory safety routines and procedures in force for waste treatment  
  • has insight into the provisions of Norway’s Gene Technology Act and the security measures for handling genetically modified organisms (GMO)
  • can present self-generated results in writing according to the IMRAD model
  • has insight into laws and regulations that govern genetic testing and genetic counselling


Course content

  • structure and function of RNA and DNA (both chromosomal and extrachromosomal), nucleoid, chromatin, chromosomes (organellar, and nuclear - both interphase, mitotic and meiotic) and extrachromosomal DNA 
  • chromosomal and extrachromosomal DNA replication, mutation, repair and recombination (site-specific, homologous, meiotic and somatic)
  • prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription and regulation thereof, including RNA processing in eukaryotes
  • regulation of translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • regulation of replication, transcription and translation of viruses that utilise prokaryotic or eukaryotic hosts
  • genetic mutation, polymorphism, variation and inheritance, pedigree analysis, human Mendelian genetics, chromosomal aberrations and deviant states of ploidy
  • recombinant DNA technology (including cloning), genetic engineering, genetically modified organisms, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, also quantitative PCR, QPCR), gene editing and gene therapy
  • genome organisation, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics
  • epigenetics -- histone modification, DNA methylation, X-inactivation, DNA imprinting; prions and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  • regulations for work with biological material and GMO
  • laboratory exercises, including nucleic acid extraction, quantitation, restriction, PCR-amplification (end point, semiquantitative and quantitative), dissociation, hybridisation sequencing and cloning; report writing with an emphasis on the analysis and dissemination of results and conclusions from analyses

Arbeids- og undervisningsformer

Organisation and methods of instruction

  • lectures
  • laboratory exercises

The course can be taught in English if international students are enrolled.


Internal practice in form of laboratory exercises.

Obligatoriske krav som må være godkjent før eksamen kan avlegges

Requirements necessary to take the exam

  • 100% attendance to eight days of laboratory exercises
  • three to five individual written assignments from selected laboratory exercises (in Englsih or in Norwegian)



  • 4-hour individual written school exam (in Englsih or in Norwegian)

The grading system is based on the letters from A-F, where E is the minimum passing grade.

Course evaluation – quality assurance system

Normally all courses shall receive a formal evaluation during each semester of instruction. The timing and method for evaluation is determined in concert with elected student representative. It is the responsibility of the course instructor to ensure the evaluation is completed.

Tillatte hjelpemidler til eksamen

Allowed resources when writing the exam